HRIBF Newsletter, Edition 15, No. 2, Aug. 2007


Feature Articles

  1. HRIBF Update and Near-Term Schedule
  2. Recent HRIBF Research - Magnetic Moment Measurements of Short-Lived Excited States in a Radioactive Environment: 132Te
  3. Recent HRIBF Research - Measurement of the 134Te(d,p) Reaction for the Study of the Single-Particle Structure of 135Te
  4. What's New at HRIBF - Update on Injector for Radioactive Ion Species 2 (IRIS2)
  5. FY2007 S&T Review
  6. Message from the New Chairman of the Users Executive Committee
  7. HRIBF-GANIL Memorandum of Understanding Signed
  8. eRIBs '07 to be Held in Newport News on Oct. 10, 2007

Regular Articles

    RA1.  RIB Development
    RA2.  Accelerator Systems Status
    RA3.  Users Group News
    RA4.  Suggestions Welcome for New Beam Development
    RA5.  HRIBF Experiments, January - June 2007

1. HRIBF Update and Near-Term Schedule
(J. R. Beene)

As we enter the last quarter of FY2007, we can look back on nine months of excellent scientific output and solid facility operations. Our operations statistics are especially gratifying because of funding uncertainties that extended through half the fiscal year, and the continued fallout from the very austere FY2006 budget (see the February 2007 Newsletter), as well as several technical problems that had to be overcome. We are told a Continuing Resolution (CR) extending up to about four months is again likely in FY2008, but provided budgets close to the FY2008 President's Recommendation are eventually passed, the fiscal condition of HRIBF and the HRIBF research program will be better than it has been in several years.

The period covered by this Newsletter (January 1 to June 30, 2007) began with the facility in a scheduled shutdown for tandem maintenance, which continued through March. During the tandem maintenance period, ORIC beam was delivered to the HPTL in February for ISOL R&D. The shutdown was extended into March due to uncertainty arising from the extended Continuing Resolution for FY2007. Beginning in April, we initiated stable beam operation in support of the RIB program, and then after completing replacement of a failed ORIC PA tube (see Accelerator Systems article) began a neutron-rich RIB campaign which concentrated on central-collision (fusion and fission) experiments led by ORNL and Oregon State groups, along with a magnetic moment measurement led by the Rutgers group. During FY2007 up to June 30, we delivered 1595 hours of RIB for research (including 1317 ISOL hours and 278 in-flight RIB hours) out of 2337 total research hours. We plan to continue the current neutron-rich RIB campaign to the end of Fiscal 2007, though an interruption in the RIB program is possible in July and/or August due to a budgetary shortfall. Such an interruption could result in extension of the neutron-rich campaign past October 1. Following the current neutron-rich campaign, a radioactive fluorine campaign is planned which will continue to the next tandem maintenance period, now scheduled from January 2008 through early March. ISOL R&D on HPTL is planned during the maintenance period. In March 2008, we plan campaign of radioactive beryllium beams, followed in April by another neutron-rich RIB campaign.

Several other events of note occurred during the period covered by this report. The IRIS2 project remains on schedule and under budget and is proceeding very well. A visit by a team of scientists from GANIL in March culminated in the signing of a memorandum of understanding (MoU) between SPIRAL and HRIBF. On May 17, members of the research staff of the HRIBF made presentations to the 2007 DOE Review of the Low-Energy Research Program. On June 11 and 12, 2007, DOE Nuclear Physics held a Scientific and Technical (S&T) Review of the HRIBF facility. The HRIBF-SPIRAL MoU and the HRIBF S&T review are discussed briefly in subsequent articles. No report on the low energy program review is yet available.

2. Recent HRIBF Research - Magnetic Moment Measurements of Short-Lived Excited States in a Radioactive Environment: 132Te
(N. Benczer-Koller & G. Kumbartzki, spokespersons)

The magnetic moment of a nuclear state is a property that reflects directly the microscopic nature of the state and provides stringent tests of theoretical models. Magnetic moments of short-lived excited states have been measured for many years by a technique which couples Coulomb excitation with the transient field experienced by fast ions traversing ferromagnetic materials.

Recent developments of the experimental procedure involve measurements on beams rather than on targets of the material of interest. This particular approach lends itself well to the use of radioactive beams and opens a large variety of isotopes for investigation. The general details of the method are described in a recent review paper [1].

The first magnetic moment with a Coulomb-excited radioactive beam utilizing the transient field method (TF) has been measured at Berkeley. The g factor of the 2+1 state of 76Kr was determined [2]. The radioactive beam was produced by the "recyclotron" method[3]. This technique, in a two-step process, involves the production of the isotope of interest by the cyclotron, followed by extraction and re-injection of the isotope into the same cyclotron for acceleration.

However, most of the nuclei that are amenable for study will become available as primary radioactive beams at facilities such as HRIBF and NSCL today, and European, Japanese facilities as well as FRIB in the US in the future.

The first isotope studied at ORNL has been 132Te. The g factor of the 2+1 state has been determined by the Recoil-in-Vacuum (RIV) technique which yields the magnitude of g factor but not its sign. The results have been described in Ref. [4]. The same state has been proposed for TF experiments in order to determine the requirements and limitations of this approach to the radioactive-beam environment.

Figure 2-1: Schematics of target chamber and detector arrangement.

Transient field experiments with radioactive beams necessitate changes to the conventional setup, where the beam typically is stopped in the target and forward-scattered light target nuclei are recorded in a particle detector placed downstream in the beam path. Special care has to be taken so that little radioactive material will be stopped in the target chamber or beam pipes nearby, where its decay radiation can be seen by the detectors. Fig. 2-1 shows the schematic setup for this experiment. The total target thickness was limited to less than 6 mg/cm2 to avoid excessive beam spread. The target was designed to let the beam and Coulomb-scattered projectiles exit from the target and mostly pass through a gap in the particle detector to be stopped down stream in a distant beam dump. A 9.15 mg/cm2 stopper foil of Cu in front of the particle detector let only the forward-scattered light target nuclei reach the detector.

Nonetheless, over time a fair amount of radioactivity accumulates in the target and stopper foil. The stopper foil could be exchanged in principle over the course of an experiment, if necessary several times, depending on the lifetimes of the radioactivities involved. In this experiment the "background" radiation in each Clover detector segment was kept below 1 kHz.

The 132Te beam contains about 10-15% 132Sb (T1/2 = 2.79 min). The Sb decays by β emission into 132Te and populates the 2+1 state of interest. This is a potential problem, since the radioactive decay is much stronger than the Coulomb excitation. But, since the Coulomb-excited projectiles exit from the target and decay in flight, their γ energies are Doppler shifted. The radioactive decay, on the other hand, originates from stopped nuclei and occurs only randomly. As Fig. 2-2 shows, both components are well separated in the gamma spectra and the random-subtraction yields clean coincidence spectra. The removal of the random and stopped components in the peak integration reduces the errors greatly.

The decay-in-flight of the projectiles recoiling into vacuum has a negative side effect. The angular distribution of the decaying &gamma-rays is attenuated due to the hyperfine interaction of the ions recoiling into vacuum. The attenuation leads to a reduced logarithmic slope of up to 30%, compared to that measured for 130Te with a Cu backed target.

Three experiments have been carried out on 132Te at ORNL. The initial run exposed the difficulties of working in a radioactive environment with a beam contaminated by isobars. The target of 10 mg/cm2 Gd proved to be too thick and the accumulated radioactivity near the particle detector and at the exit pipe of the target chamber quickly overwhelmed the γ detectors. A test run with a stable 130Te beam also revealed problems with heat dissipation of the target beam spot. A new, larger chamber was built and a thinner target was prepared. In a second attempt, radioactive 132Te beam was not available, so the new setup was tested with stable 130Te with a beam intensity (3X107 p/s) corresponding to that expected for the radioactive beam to assure thermal stability of the target under beam.

Finally, the radiaoactive beam experiment was carried out, albeit with a 132Te beam weaker than expected. Two different targets were used: 1.3 mg/c2 C on 4.9 mg/cm2 Gd backed by 0.8 mg/cm2 of Cu (added solely to improve thermal conductivity) and 1 mg/cm2 C on 4.4 mg/cm2 Fe. Both targets were cooled to 77 K with liquid nitrogen. The coincidence rate was at best 1 every 18 seconds per Clover detector for a total of about 700 counts per Clover and field direction. The data are still being analyzed and the preliminary result is in agreement with Ref. [4]. An important part of this experiment is the determination of the sign of the g factor, which is as expected positive. The success of this experiment provides a proof of principle and is a guide for future measurements. In a radioactive environment, every isotope carries new challenges and a novel approach may have to be developed for each one.

Figure 2-2: The spectra show from top to bottom a typical γ singles spectrum (random spectrum), a coincidence cut on the prompt particle-γ time and the random-subtracted coincidence spectra for Clover segments at 138° and 58° with respect to the beam. The only peak left is the forward- or backward-Doppler shifted 2+1 -> 0 transition in 132Te. In spite of a small true-to-random ratio, clean coincidence spectra can be obtained.

[1] N. Benczer-Koller and G. Kumbartzki, J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys. 34, R321 (2007).

[2]G. Kumbartzki, J. R. Cooper, N. Benczer-Koller, K. Hiles, T. J. Mertzimekis, M. J. Taylor, K.-H. Speidel, P. Maier-Komor, L. Bernstein, M. A. McMahan, et al., Phys. Lett. B 591, 213 (2004).

[3] J. R. Cooper, L. Bernstein, M. A. McMahan, J. Powell, D. Wutte, L. Ahle, N. Benczer-Koller, D. Dashdorj, G. Kumbartzki, T. J. Mertzimekis, et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 253, 287 (2004).

[4] N. J. Stone, A. E. Stuchbery, M. Danchev, J. Pavan, C. Timlin, C. Baktash, C. Barton, J. Beene, N. Benczer-Koller, C. R. Bingham, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 192501 (2005).

3. Recent HRIBF Research - Measurement of the 134Te(d,p) Reaction for the Study of the Single-Particle Structure of 135Te
(S. D. Pain, spokesperson)

The study of the single-particle structure of neutron-rich nuclei adjacent to shell closures yields important information for understanding the evolution of nuclear structure away from stability. Furthermore, the properties of neutron-rich nuclei near shell closures are significant to the understanding of neutron-capture processes that are responsible for the formation of the heavy elements. The low-level densities and low neutron-separation energies in such nuclei result in low neutron-capture rates, with significant components from direct capture into low lying states and isolated resonances. The properties of these single-particle states are crucial for determining direct capture rates. Transfer reactions are well established as a powerful spectroscopic tool for studying the single-particle structure of nuclei, and the (d,p) reaction preferentially populates the low-spin single-particle levels that are important for neutron capture.

The neutron-rich nucleus 135Te (Z=52, N=83) is one neutron beyond the N=82 closed shell, and two protons beyond the Z=50 shell closure; consequently, the properties of many low-lying states are predominantly of single-neutron structure. Its proximity to these shell closures makes it of particular importance to nuclear structure and astrophysics. Astrophysically, the structure of low-lying levels in 135Te is of significance to the isotopic abundances of xenon measured in pre-solar diamond grains, which indicate an overabundance of light (124,126Xe) and heavy (134,136Xe) isotopes compared to intermediate mass Xe isotopes, relative to the solar abundances. These anomalous isotopic ratios cannot be explained satisfactorily by addition of the p and r process xenon abundances, as observed in the solar system, as the relative excesses of 134Xe and 136Xe do not correspond to the isotopic ratios of the average r process [1].

Proposed explanations for this heavy isotope anomaly include the rapid separation of xenon from its precursors (iodine and tellurium) in supernova ejecta [1, 2], processes in which the rate of neutron capture is somewhere between the s and r processes, or a low-entropy r process [3]. The relative abundances of 134Te and 136Te in such an astrophysical environment has a direct bearing on the final abundances of the β-decay daughters 134Xe and 136Xe. Therefore, knowledge of the properties of the low-lying neutron states with low in 135Te will add constraint to the range of conditions under which such isotopic ratios of xenon can be formed.

Figure 3-1: Proton energy vs laboratory angle for a single strip of a forward angle detector (gated on protons), showing loci corresponding to the 134Te(d,p)135Te reaction populating a number of states in 135Te. The intense group at the lower-left of the plot is due to elastically scattered protons. The red dotted lines are expectations for the population of states in 135Te and the elastically scattered protons.

We have measured the 134Te(d,p)135Te reaction in inverse kinematics, utilizing a beam of 134Te incident at 643 MeV on a 100 μg/cm2 CD2 target (effective thickness due to rotation). The proton ejectiles were measured in an array of position-sensitive silicon detector telescopes, comprised of an early implementation of the Oak Ridge Rutgers University Barrel Array (ORRUBA) augmented by the Silicon Detector Array (SIDAR). The setup covered the angular ranges 55° to 125° with ORRUBA detectors, and 145° to 165° with SIDAR detectors. The ORRUBA detectors subtending angles forward of 90° were set up as charged particle telescopes, to enable the separation of proton ejectiles from elastically scattered deuterons and carbon nuclei from the target.

A preliminary plot of proton energy vs angle, for one strip of a single forward-angle ORRUBA telescope, is shown in Fig. 3-1, gated on protons from the ΔE-E measurement. Loci can be seen corresponding to transfer to the ground state and a number of excited states in 135Te, along with the locus from protons scattered elastically from the target.

Figure 3-2 shows a Q-value spectrum for the data shown in Figure 3-1. The presence of a strongly populated state near 1.8 MeV, along with the relative strength of the peak at about 1 MeV (relative to the ground and first-excited state peaks) is suggestive that the majority of the f5/2 strength lies at 1.8 MeV, rather than at about 1 MeV, as previously supposed [4]. Further analysis will yield angular distributions, enabling the determination of spin assignments and the extraction of spectroscopic factors for the levels populated.

Figure 3-2: Q-value spectrum for the 134Te(d,p)135Te reaction, calculated event-by-event, for a single forward-angle strip.

[1] Ulrich Ott, Astrophys. J. 463, 344 (1996).
[2] S. Richter, U. Ott, and F. Begemann, Nature 391, 261 (1998).
[3] A. Cameron, Nature 391, 228 (1998).
[4] P. Hoff, B. Ekstrom, and B. Fogelberg, Z. Phys. A332, 407 (1989).

4. What's New at HRIBF - Update on Injector for Radioactive Ion Species 2 (IRIS2)
(B. A. Tatum)

The IRIS2 Project remains on schedule and budget. The major effort in the facility modifications portion of the project during the reporting period was installation of the Target Room HVAC system (Fig.4-1), which was successfully completed in April. Support structure and the localized shield around the target ion source has been fully installed (Figs. 4-2 and 4-3). Long lead-time technical equipment components are beginning to arrive. National Electrostatics Corporation (NEC) delivered the injector beamline platform in June (Fig. 4-2), and the instrumentation platform (Fig. 4-4) was delivered in August. Field mapping of the first stage mass separator magnets (Fig. 4-5) was nearing completion at the end of June, and they are expected to arrive at ORNL by late August. Fabrication and testing of the four high voltage conduits was extremely successful, and they will also be installed in August. By the end of September, we expect to have both of the platform structures, the high voltage conduits, and the injector beamline dipole magnets installed.

Figure 4-1: Target Room (C112) HVAC System.

Figure 4-2: Installation of the Beamline Platform in C112.

Figure 4-3: The new localized shielding (yellow) around the target ion source on the Beamline Platform in C112.

Figure 4-4: Installation of the Instrumentation Platform in C113 and the installed high voltage conduits.

Figure 4-5: Injector beamline separator magnets prior to installation.

5. FY2007 S&T Review
(J. R. Beene)

A Science and Technology (S&T) Review of the HRIBF and its scientific program was held on June 11 and 12, 2007. Since the scientific program at HRIBF had been examined as part of the extensive national review of the Low-Energy Nuclear Physics Program in May 2007, the S&T Review concentrated on HRIBF operations. We expect a formal report on the S&T Review (and the Low-Energy Program Review) within a few weeks. At present we have only a set of bullets presented at closeout at the end of the review. It is inappropriate to discuss this unofficial feedback in any detail, but both facility and Physics Division management clearly see the results of the review as very favorable, based on this closeout document.

We must respond in writing to all Recommendations produced by the Review Committee. The "closeout bullets" presented only two recommendations: one deals with providing details of our plans for improving ORIC, and a second is concerned with development of performance measures for projected RIB campaigns. These will be discussed further when the formal report is received.

6. Message from the New Chairman of the Users Executive Committee
(A. E. Champagne)

The last time that I served as chair of the UEC was 1995-96 - before operation of the HRIBF started. It was a rather abstract experience. Now the science at the HRIBF has reached the stage where it's necessary to think about how the facility should evolve. This comes at a time when budget constraints have had a real impact on productivity throughout the community. I look forward to working with the HRIBF to address both the concerns of the present and plans for the future.

A number of HRIBF users have expressed concerns about the reliability of the run schedule at the HRIBF, which is shared by the facility management. This issue was examined by the UEC. We considered the current situation at Oak Ridge in comparison with our experience at other facilities, drafted a number of recommendations, and discussions were held with the HRIBF management. There is general agreement that budget compression has taken a toll, for example, it is not possible to maintain a 24/7 repair staff and only selected spare parts are available. Nonetheless, it was also agreed that steps could be taken within the current budget reality. One improvement that will be implemented shortly is the creation of a "RIB Specialist" position. This person will have the overall responsibility for the delivery of a beam to an experiment and will also serve as the facility contact person before and during an experiment. There have also been discussions related to operational efficiency. The general state of the budget will continue to be an impediment. However, we feel that the current situation will be improved in the near future.

As many of you know, there have been news rules and restrictions regarding computer usage. Robert Varner reports that the impact of the new DOE rules and the various laboratories' interpretations and adaptations are in a state of flux and their impact to the facilities, including HRIBF, is not yet clear. There is considerable uncertainty over how the research needs of the users can be accommodated, but it is clear that we will have to live with this new reality.

Finally, planning is underway for a workshop on physics with the proposed electron driver. Stay tuned for details.

7. HRIBF-GANIL Memorandum of Understanding Signed
(J. R. Beene)

On March 9, 2007, a group of scientists from GANIL visited ORNL to discuss possible collaborative and synergistic efforts related to radioactive isotope beam (RIB) production and research with RIBs. In addition to the discussions at HRIBF, various topics related to high-power linear accelerators and handling high-power beams were discussed with SNS staff. The team consisted of Sydney Gales, Director of GANIL; Marcel Jacquemet, Deputy Director and Project Leader for SPIRAL2; and Marek Lewitowicz, Scientific Coordinator of SPIRAL2.

The MoU signed at the end of the visit (see above photo) outlines a broad program of common interest in target development, ion source development, beam purification techniques, remote handling, research equipment, and possible synergies in development of SPIRAL2 and the as yet unfunded electron driver upgrade at HRIBF. Collaborative agreements such as this one can be of substantial value to HRIBF, providing us early access to developments elsewhere and helping us achieve faster implementation of our own innovative ideas.

8. eRIBs '07 to be Held in Newport News on Oct. 10, 2007
(A. Galindo-Uribarri)

You are cordially invited to attend the International Workshop eRIBs07 "Electron Drivers for Radioactive Ion Beams" to be held on October 10th, 2007 at the Marriott Hotel , Newport News, VA, USA. This workshop explores the scientific and technological issues associated with the production of radioactive ion beams by photofission of actinides. The workshop is organized by users of the ORNL and TRIUMF RIB facilities. It will be held during the 2007 DNP Fall meeting of APS.

An agenda will be posted on the workshop website closer to the meeting. We anticipate that the workshop will begin around 9:00 am and conclude around 5:00 pm.



Registration is by email before October 3, 2007 at no charge

Workshop Location

Marriott Hotel
740 Town Center Dr.
Newport News, Virginia 23606
Phone: (757) 873-9299
Fax: (757) 873-9298


Glenn Young (ORNL)
Hendrik Schatz (MSU)
Richard Pardo (ANL)
Fadi Ibrahim (Orsay)
Yuri Oganessian (Dubna)*
Lia Merminga (CASA, Jefferson Lab)
Nigel Lockyer (TRIUMF)
Jim R. Beene (ORNL)
Shane R. Koscielniak (TRIUMF)
Alan Tatum (ORNL)
Marik Dombsky (TRIUMF)
Dan Stracener (ORNL)
Pierre Bricault (TRIUMF)


John Behr (TRIUMF)
Art Champagne (UNC)
David Dean (ORNL)
Jens Dilling (TRIUMF), co-chair
Alfredo Galindo-Uribarri (ORNL), co-chair
Paul Garrett (Guelph)
Robert Grywacz (U. of Tennessee Knox.)
Rituparna Kanungo (St. Mary's U.)


Alfredo Galindo-Uribarri

Physics Division
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
P.O. Box 2008
Building 6000, MS 6368
Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6368
Phone: (865) 574-6124
Fax: (865) 574-1268

Jens Dilling

Canada's National Laboratory
for Particle and Nuclear Physics
4004 Wesbrook Mall
Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4
Phone: (604) 222-1047 ext. 7413
Fax: (604) 222-1074

Sherry M. Lamb

Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
P.O. Box 2008
Building 6008, MS 6374
Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6374
Phone: (865) 574-4740

RA1. RIB Development
(D. W. Stracener)

In the last few months, a number of on-line and off-line tests have been performed at the On-Line Test Facility (OLTF) and at the High Power Target Laboratory (HPTL). In addition, a new target and ion source (TIS) assembly station is near completion.

The current assembly station has the capability for assembling and testing TIS modules for the IRIS-1 (Injector for Radioactive Ion Species 1) production platform. At the new assembly station we will be able to fully assemble and test TIS assemblies for both RIB production platforms. The TIS module tests include alignment of the utility connections (cooling water, electrical, vacuum, thermocouples, pressure gauges, and gas feeds), check for vacuum and water leaks, alignment of the RIB production target, check of the electrical connections in the ion source, and a high temperature test of all systems. The high temperature test also helps to outgas the target and ion source before it is moved to the production platform.

At the OLTF, targets are tested using low-intensity beams from the tandem accelerator. Proton and deuteron beam intensity is limited to less than 50 nA with energies up 40 MeV. A uranium boride target was irradiated with 40-MeV protons to look for the release of zirconium isotopes as molecular boride ions. After several on-line tests and an irradiation and release measurement, it appears that zirconium has very low release efficiency from uranium carbide or uranium boride targets. Andreas Kronenberg (ORAU) has been the principal investigator for this series of tests. In collaboration with Will Talbert (TechSource), Jerry Nolen (ANL), and John Greene (ANL), we recently tested a very high density (10.5 g/cm3) uranium carbide target. Using 40 MeV protons to induce fission, we measured the beam yields for a large number of fission fragments. The preliminary analysis indicates lower release efficiencies than are observed for lower density targets. The details of this analysis will be presented later. Experiments can also be made using heavy-ion beams from the tandem. A recent experiment to investigate targets for the production of beams in the region of Ag-97 used a Ni-58 beam on a Cr target. Chris Goodin (Vanderbilt) is the principal investigator for these experiments.

At the HPTL, targets are tested using light-ion beams from the cyclotron. Using 54-MeV and 42-MeV proton beams with intensities up to 15 μA, we have measured the yields of Al-25 and Al-26m beams from various silicon carbide (SiC) targets. A series of tests using SiC fiber targets (15 micron diameter fibers) have shown limited release of short-lived aluminum isotopes and the targets suffer significant damage when the production beam current exceeds 7 μA. In collaboration with Alberto Andrighetto and coworkers from Legnaro, we recently tested a SiC target design that allows higher production beam currents. The SiC disks are about 1.2 mm thick and separated by about 4 mm to allow for faster heat dissipation via radiation to the walls of the target chamber. So far there is no indication of target damage up to 12 μA and the normalized yields for aluminum isotopes are comparable to those observed with the SiC fiber targets. The Legnaro group has developed a detailed model to simulate temperatures in the target and these simulations agree quite well with the observed target temperatures. The HPTL is presently off-line to allow for the installation of the IRIS-2 platform and high voltage conduits. We plan to resume the on-line development of SiC targets later this year.

RA2. Accelerator System Status

ORIC Operations and Development (B. A. Tatum)

ORIC was shut down for maintenance during much of the period in conjunction with the tandem tank opening. The new 13.8kV vacuum breaker for starting the main field motor-generator set (mentioned in the Feb. 2007 newsletter) was installed and has operated reliably. Generator brushes were also replaced, a routine task that is necessary after around 1500 hours of operation. Another old power supply was replaced: the 1975-vintage 850 amp Transrex unit used to energize vertical bending magnet BMV_1_1, which is located at the end of the ORIC extraction system. Improvements were also made to the rf system phase probe.

ORIC provided proton beam to the High Power Target Laboratory (HPTL) in February to support development of Al beams from SiC targets. As we were preparing to resume RIB operations in April, the ORIC PA tube failed with a grid-to-screen internal short circuit. A new spare tube was installed. The failed tube had been in service for over 7 years with around 20,000 hours of operation. Tube lifetime can vary widely, up to 60,000 hours. ORIC and neutron-rich RIB operations resumed in May and continued through the end of June with ORIC running extremely well.

RIB Injector Operations and Development (P.E. Mueller)

During the period from 1 January 2007 to 30 June 2007, the 25-MV Tandem Electrostatic Accelerator delivered radioactive ion beams of

  • 70 kpps [20.9 MV 14+/25+ terminal foil / high energy foil stripped] 465 MeV 95% 132Sn,
  • 40 kpps [21.3 MV 14+/25+ terminal foil / high energy foil stripped] 475 MeV 95% 132Sn,
  • 50 kpps [22.4 MV 14+/25+ terminal foil / high energy foil stripped] 500 MeV 95% 132Sn,
  • 50 kpps [22.5 MV 15+/27+ terminal foil / high energy foil stripped] 540 MeV 95% 132Sn,
  • 23 kpps [23.2 MV 14+/27+ terminal foil / high energy foil stripped] 550 MeV 95% 132Sn,
  • 1.8 kpps [21.4 MV 14+/25+ terminal foil / high energy foil stripped] 480 MeV 22% 134Sn,
  • 1.6 kpps [22.4 MV 14+/25+ terminal foil / high energy foil stripped] 500 MeV 34% 134Sn, and
  • 2 kpps [23.0 MV 14+/26+ terminal foil / high energy foil stripped] 530 MeV 30% 134Sn to the time-of-flight endstation in Beam Line 23, and
  • 72 Mpps [23.3 MV 16+ terminal foil stripped] 396 MeV 80% 132Te to the general purpose endstation in Beam Line 21.

    These beams were produced via proton induced fission of 238U by bombarding a pressed powder uranium carbide target coupled to an Electron Beam Plasma (positive) Ion Source (EBPIS) with 15 - 19 uA of 50 MeV 1H. Additionally, the high purity tin beams were produced by passing a positive tin sulfide beam through the recirculating cesium jet charge exchange cell and selecting the negative tin beam resulting from molecular breakup.

  • Tandem Operations and Development (M. Meigs)

    The Tandem Accelerator was operated for almost 1700 hours since the last report.   The machine ran at terminal potentials of 4.95 to 23.3 MV and the stable beams 1H, 11B, 32S, 54Fe, 58Ni, 74Ge, 124Sn, 130Te and 197Au, 238U were provided. 238U was provided from the RIB injector uranium carbide source. Radioactive beams of 132,134Sn, and 132Te accounted for more than 630 hours of beam on target. Conditioning was done for about 210 hours, first to return the column to proper form after having the low energy tube at atmosphere for a short time and then to try to combat an unusual deconditioning phenomenon in the top of the machine. This conditioning phenomenon typically occurred any time the voltage was changed by a substantial amount; not just after sparks! It was traced to units 21/22 which will be thoroughly inspected during the next tank opening. Fortunately, the conditioning stops after a short time and allows us to run at normal voltages but the machine is a little more prone to sparks and tics.

    At the beginning of the reporting period, the tank was open for scheduled maintenance and it remained open until February 26. Persistent leaks (persistent in not being able to find it and persistent in still showing SF6 after the tank was up to air) in the terminal caused five more tank openings. Two more tank openings were caused by loss of communication to D4. On March 27, a tube truck delivered 20,000 pounds of SF6. This should allow higher voltages after we fix the errant 21/22 pair.

    RA3. User Group News

    The HRIBF will hold its annual Users Group Meeting at this year's DNP meeting in Newport News, VA on Thursday evening, October 11. As has become tradition, this meeting will be held jointly with the ATLAS, NSCL, GAMMASPHERE/GRETINA, and RIA Users groups. More details will be provided in future emails.

    The next Users Group Workshop will be on the physics to be done with beams produced by photofission. HRIBF hopes to submit a proposal to DOE at the end of the calendar year to build a 50 kW electron accelerator capable of inducing 1013 fissions per second. Current HRIBF neutron-rich beams are produced with 3x1011 fissions per second. In addition, the photofission process results in more neutron-rich isotopes such as 134Sn. Additional information including projected beam intensities are given on our electron driver website.

    Dates for the workshop have yet to be determined.

    RA4. Suggestions Welcome for New Beam Development

    HRIBF welcomes suggestions for future radioactive beam development. Such suggestions may take the form of a Letter of Intent or an e-mail to the Liaison Officer at In any case, a brief description of the physics to be addressed with the proposed beam should be included. Of course, any ideas on specific target material, production rates, and/or the chemistry involved are also welcome but not necessary. In many cases, we should have some idea of the scope of the problems involved.

    Beam suggestions should be within the relevant facility parameters/capabilities listed below.

    • The tandem accelerates negative ions only.
    • Positive ions may be charge-exchanged or used directly off the platform (E < 40 keV).
    • ORIC presently produces up to 52-MeV of 1H (12 uA); 49-MeV 2H (12 uA); 120-MeV 3He (not yet attempted, costly); 100-MeV 4He (3 uA). Higher currents may be possible.
    • Typical reactions required to produce more than 106 ions per second are n, 2n, pn, and alpha-n fusion-evaporation reaction channels and beam-induced fission products. More exotic reactions are possible if extremely low beam currents are all that is needed.
    • Species release is strongly related to the chemistry between the target material and the beam species. It is best when the properties are different and the target is refractory. Thin, robust targets (fibrous, liquid metals, a few grams per square centimeter) must be able to withstand 1500 degrees Celsius or more.
    • Minimum half-life is seconds unless chemistry is very favorable.
    • Very long-lived species (T1/2 > 1 h) are probably best done in batchmode, i.e., radioactive species are produced with ORIC beams and then transported to the ion source where beams are produced via sputtering. Sputter rates of the species and target substrates are important.
    • Isobaric separation is possible for light beams (fully stripped ions), while isobaric enhancement may be possible for heavy beams.
    • Beware of long-lived daughters or contaminant reaction channels.

    RA5. HRIBF Experiments, January through June 2007
    (M. R. Lay)

    Date Exp. No. Spokesperson Title of Experiment
    1/1-25 Shutdown    
    1/25-26 RIB-039 Mueller/ORNL High voltage injector development
    1/27-28 Shutdown    
    1/29-31 RIB-039 Mueller/ORNL High voltage injector development
    2/1-4/1 Shutdown    
    4/2-5 RIB-013 Blackmon/ORNL DRS commissioning
    4/5 RIB-037 Meigs,Juras/ORNL Tandem development
    4/6-8 Shutdown    
    4/9-10 RIB-013 Blackmon/ORNL DRS commissioning
    4/10-11 RIB-014 Stracener/ORNL Target ion source development
    4/12 RIB-121 Shapira/ORNL Subbarrier fusion of 134Sn with 64Ni
    4/13 RIB-039 Mueller/ORNL High voltage injector development
    4/14-15 RIB-037 Meigs,Juras/ORNL Tandem development
    4/16-19 RIB-164 Liang/ORNL Remeasurement of fusion of 132Sn and 64Ni at 453 MeV
    4/19-20 RIB-037 Meigs,Juras/ORNL Tandem development
    4/20-21 RIB-112 Benczer-Koller/Rutgers First g factor measurement of the 2+ state of 132Te produced as a radioactive beam
    4/21-22 Shutdown    
    4/23-25 RIB-112 Benczer-Koller/Rutgers First g factor measurement of the 2+ state of 132Te produced as a radioactive beam
    4/26-27 RIB-000 Gross/ORNL RMS commissioning
    4/28-29 Shutdown    
    5/1-3 RIB-000 Gross/ORNL RMS commissioning
    5/3 RIB-035 Stracener/ORNL Target ion source development
    5/4-8 Shutdown    
    5/9 Unscheduled maintenance    
    5/9-10 RIB-035 Stracener/ORNL Target ion source development
    5/10-11 RIB-013 Blackmon/ORNL DRS commissioning
    5/12-13 Shutdown    
    5/14 RIB-000 Gross/ORNL RMS commissioning
    5/15-17 RIB-163 Mazzocchi/University of Milan Search for alpha decay of 112Cs
    5/18 RIB-164 Liang/ORNL Remeasurement of fusion of 132Sn and 64Ni at 453 MeV
    5/19-20 Shutdown    
    5/21-25 RIB-101 Grzywacz/University of Tennessee, Page/University of Liverpool Search for the superallowed alpha decay chain 108Xe -> 104Te ->100Sn and for fine structure in the decay of 105Te
    5/26-28 Shutdown    
    5/29-31 RIB-136 Forster/University of Montreal Lifetimes of Very Heavy Compound Nuclei Preceding Heavy-Ion Induced Fission
    5/31-6/2 RIB-164 Liang/ORNL Remeasurement of fusion of 132Sn and 64Ni at 453 MeV
    6/2-4 RIB-121 Shapira/ORNL Subbarrier fusion of 134Sn with 64Ni
    6/4 RIB-039 Mueller/ORNL High voltage injector development
    6/5-12 RIB-121 Shapira/ORNL Subbarrier fusion of 134Sn with 64Ni
    6/12-25 RIB-085 Loveland/Oregon State University Study of fusion enhancement/hinderance with massive neutron-rich projectiles
    6/25-27 RIB-112 Benczer-Koller/Rutgers First g factor measurement of the 2+ state of 132Te produced as a radioactive beam
    6/28 RIB-037 Meigs,Juras/ORNL Tandem development
    6/28-30 RIB-112 Benczer-Koller/Rutgers First g factor measurement of the 2+ state of 132Te produced as a radioactive beam