The Taylor Series and explicit Runge-Kutta methods that we have discussed so far have no memory: the value of for before do not directly affect the values of for after . Other methods take advantage of previously computed solution values and are referred to as multistep methods. The Adam's formulas for non-stiff problems and the Backward Differentiation Formulas for stiff problems furnish important and widely-used examples of multi-step methods.

- 2.3.1 The Adams-Bashforth and Adams-Moulton Formulas
- 2.3.2 Stiff Problems: Backward Differentiation Formulas
- 2.3.3 The Code VODE
- 2.3.4 VODE Example