Typically,
exceeds 200 m/sec in
basins of depth **>4000** m, so is of order 100 sec for a spatial
resolution of 20 km normally associated with eddy-resolving
basin-scale ocean models. This is wasteful for baroclinic
calculations, because the interior of the ocean adjusts very
slowly to changes in forcing.

Expressions for the bottom stress in terms of the velocity components have already been given in section 2.2.1,

In the linear formulation takes the form

where has values typically between or sec, depending on the application.