HRIBF TOPS

HRIBF TOPS
Tandem control parameter program for estimating terminal voltage and charge state fraction. Transmission through the tandem is not included at this time. Absolute magnitude of the charge state fraction may be in error but relative values should be OK.

Primary beam Z
Primary beam A
Molecular component beam Z, 0=none
Molecular component beam A, 0=none
Injection voltage

Analyzed beam energy

Single strip Double strip



Typical molecular components

Some negative ion beams are best produced as molecules which are broken in the terminal when the ions pass through the stripper. The molecules are broken with what is called the "Coulomb explosion" and this effect can slightly lower efficiency. Gas stripping prior to foil stripping is typically used to minimize this effect as the ions acquire less positive charge in gas stripping. Foil stripping can still be done to reach the higher charge states necessary for higher energy beams.

Beams produced in molecular form are given below. 7,10Be 26gAl 6)>

Beams produced in elemental form are given below.

  • Most radioactive beams are either charged exchanged or are extracted as negative ions
  • Z=1 (H)
  • Z=2 (He)
  • Z=3 (Li)
  • Z=5 (B)
  • Z=6 (C)
  • Z=8 (O)
  • Z=9 (F)
  • Z=14 (Si)
  • Z=15 (P)
  • Z=16 (S)
  • Z=17 (Cl)
  • Z=28 (Ni)
  • Z=29 (As)
  • Z=32 (Ge)
  • Z=33 (As)
  • Z=34 (Se)
  • Z=35 (Br)
  • Z=46 (Pd)
  • Z=47 (Ag)
  • Z=50 (Sn)
  • Z=51 (Sb)
  • Z=52 (Te)
  • Z=53 (I)
  • Z=78 (Pt)
  • Z=79 (Au)
If your beam species is not listed here, contact us at the address below. We would most likely require time to develop the beam.

For questions about this page please contact the HRIBF User Liaison.

This file last modified Tuesday March 17, 2009