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1.5.5 ls     continued...

ls -la produces a long listing (which includes the permissions) of all the files in the current working directory. Even the files beginning with a `` ." (or dot-files) are included in that listing.

Protections are read in this manner. If this is a directory, there is a d in the first spot. The next three spots are the permissions for you, the user, these are read, write, and e xecute. The next three are for your group. (Your group may be ``graduate", ``faculty", ``guest", or some other group defined by your local system administrator.) These permissions are also r, w, x similar to the first three. The last are also r, w, x, but this time, for all other users. If the letter appears in its position the permission is allowed, if a - occurs instead, the permission is not allowed. Use the chmod command to change permissions.