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1 Introduction     continued...

We shall use the term ``computational science'' as a convenient shorthand for ``computational science and engineering.'' A well-known characterisation of computational science activities was presented by K. Wilson in 1986 [1]. He summarized the characteristics of computational science problems in whatever discipline as those;

  1. having a precise mathematical statement,
  2. being intractable by traditional methods,
  3. having a significant scope,
  4. requiring an in-depth knowledge of science, engineering or the arts.
At that time Wilson also addressed a number of open issues concerning computational science, all of which are still open issues today and will be addressed in the following sections.