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Backhaus, J.O. and Maier-Reimer, E., On Seasonal Circulation in the North Sea, in ``North Sea Dynamics'', p. 63, 1983 [ see Sundermann].

Bleck, R. and Boudra, D.B., Wind-driven spin-up in eddy-resolving ocean models formulated in isopycnic and isobaric coordinates, J. Geophys. Res. 91, p. 7611, 1986. [ This type of model is best for deep basic physics]

Blumberg, A. F. and Mellor, G.L., A description of a three-dimensional coastal ocean circulation model. In Three-Dimensional Coastal Ocean Models. ed. N. Heaps, American Geophysical Union, pp. 1--16, 1987. [ This type of model is best for shallow coastal waters]

Bryan, K., A Numerical Method for the Study of the Circulation of the World Ocean, J. Comp. Phys. 4, p. 347, 1969. [ The most popular and the oldest ocean model]

Cartwright, D.E., Detection of tides from artificial satellites (review), in Tidal Hydrodynamics, ed. by B.B. Parker, John Wiley & Sons, pp. 547--568, 1991.

Creegan, A., A numerical investigation of the circulation in the Norwegian Sea, Tellus 28, p. 451, 1976.

Davis, R.E., DeSzoeke, R. and Niiler, P.P., Variability in the upper ocean during MILE, Part 2: Modeling the mixed-layer response, Deep-Sea Res. 28, p. 1453, 1981.

Davies, A.M., Application of a Three-Dimensional Shelf Model to the Calculation of North Sea Currents, in ``North Sea Dynamics'', p. 44, 1983 [ see Sundermann].

Davies, A.M. and James, I.D., Three-Dimensional Galerkin-Spectral Sea Models of the North Sea and German Bight, in ``North Sea Dynamics'', p. 85, 1983 [ see Sundermann].

Dickey, T.D. and Simpson, J.J., The relationship between downward irradiance and upper ocean structure, J. Phys. Ocean. 11, 309--323, 1981.

Dietrich, G., Kalle, K., Krauss, W. and Siedler, G., General Oceanography. An Introduction. 2nd Ed., pp. 626, 1980. [ Good text on oceanography]

Durance, J.A. and Hughes, D.G., Experiments with Two- and Three-Dimensional Numerical Models of the North-East Coast of England, in ``North Sea Dynamics'', p. 120, 1983 [ see Sundermann].

Flather, R.A. and Proctor, R., Prediction of North Sea Storm Surges Using Numerical Models: Recent Developments in the U.K., in ``North Sea Dynamics'', p. 299, 1983 [ see Sundermann]

Fletcher, C.A.J., Computational Techniques for Fluid Dynamics, Vol. 1 and 2, Springer--Verlag, 1987. [ Excellent reference on numerical solutions of fluid flow equations]

Fofonoff,N.P., Physical properties of sea water, in ``The Sea'', Vol. 1, ed. N.M. Hill, Interscience Publications, pp. 3--30, 1962.

Foreman, M.G.G., Henry, R.F., Walters, R.A. and Ballantyne, V.A., A finite element model for tides and resonance along the north coast of British Columbia. J. Geophys. Res. 98, pp. 2509--2531, 1993.

Furnes, G.K., Wind Effects in the North Sea, J. Phys. Ocean. 10, p. 978, 1980.

Galperin, B., Kantha, L.H., Hassid, S. and Rosati, A., A quasi-equilibrium turbulent energy model for geophysical flows, J. Atmos. Sci. 45, pp. 55--62, 1988.

Galperin, B., Rosati, A., Kantha, L.H. and Mellor,G.L., Modeling rotating stratified turbulent flows with application to oceanic mixed layers. J. Phys. Ocean. 19, pp. 901--916, 1989.

Gargett, A.E. and Holloway, G., Sensitivity of the GFDL ocean model to different diffusivities for heat and salt, J. Phys. Ocean. 22, pp. 1158--1177, 1992.

Garwood, R.W., An oceanic mixed-layer model capable of simulating cyclic states, J. Phys. Ocean. 7, p. 455, 1977.

Gill, A.E., Atmosphere--Ocean Dynamics, Academic Press, pp. 662, 1982. [ Excellent text on ocean and atmospheric dynamics]

Gleick, J., Chaos: making of a new science, Viking Press, 1987. [ Fascinating account of the evolution of the subject of chaos in nonlinear systems]

Grammeltvedt, A., A Survey of Finite-Difference Schemes for the Primitive Equations for a Barotropic Fluid, Mon. Wea.\ Rev. 97, p. 384, 1969.

Haidvogel, D.B., Wilkin, J.L. and Young, R., A Semi-spectral Primitive Equation Model Using Vertical Sigma and Orthogonal Curvilinear Horizontal Coordinates, J. Comp. Phys. 94, p. 151, 1991.

Haney, R.L., On the pressure gradient force over steep topography in sigma-coordinate ocean models, J. Phys. Ocean. 21, 610--619, 1991.

Heaps, N.S., ed., Three-dimensional coastal Ocean Models, AGU Press, 1987. [ A monograph on 3-D coastal models. Advanced material for serious coastal
ocean modelers. Collection of technical papers.

Heathershaw, A.D., and Codd, J.M., The accuracy of mixed layer model predictions: a preliminary analysis of the effects of errors in the oceanographic and meteorological inputs, Admiralty Research Establishment Technical Memorandum 86125, 1986.

Hellerman, S. and Rosenstein, M., Normal monthly wind stress over the world ocean with error estimates, J. Phys. Ocean.\ 13, pp. 1093--1104, 1983.

Holland, W.R. and Lin, l.B., On the generation of mesoscale eddies and their contribution to the oceanic general circulation, J. Phys. Ocean. 5, p. 642, 1975.

Hurlburt, H.E. and Thompson, J.D., A Numerical Study of Loop Current Intrusions and Eddy Shedding, J. Phys. Ocean. 10, p. 1611, 1980.

Jerlov, N. G., Marine Optics, Elsevier, 1976. [ Standard reference on optical properties of sea water]

Kantha, L.H., Blumberg, A.F. and Mellor, G.L, Computing phase speeds at an open boundary, J. Hydraulic Engineering 116, pp. 592--597, 1990.

Kantha, L.H. and Clayson, C.A., An improved mixed layer model for geophysical applications, submitted to J. Geophys. Res., 1993. [ A good review of mixed layer models]

Kantha, L.H. and Mellor, G.L., A two-dimensional coupled ocean--ice model of the Bering Sea marginal ice zone, J. Geophys. Res. 94, pp. 10921--10936, 1989.

Killworth, P.D., Stainforth, D., Webb, D.J. and Patterson, S.M., The Development of a Free-Surface Bryan--Cox--Semtner Ocean Model, J. Phys. Ocean. 21, p. 1333, 1991.

Levitus, S., Annual cycle of temperature and heat storage in the world ocean, J. Phys. Ocean. 14, pp. 727--746, 1984.

Liu, W.T., Katsaros, K.B. and Businger, J.A., Bulk parametrization of air--sea exchanges of heat and water vapor including the molecular constraints at the interface, J. Atmos. Sci. 39, p. 1722, 1979.

Madala, R.V. and Piacsek, S.A., A Model for Baroclinic Oceans, J. Comp. Phys., p. 167, 1977.

Martin, P.J., Simulation of the Mixed Layer at OWS November and Papa With Several Models, J. Geophys. Res. 90, p. 903, 1985.

Mellor., G.L. and Blumberg, A.F., Modeling vertical and horizontal diffusivities with the sigma coordinate system, Mon. Wea. Rev., 113, pp. 1380--1388, 1985.

Mellor, G.L. and Kantha, L.H., An ice--ocean coupled model, J. Geophys.\ Res. 94, pp. 10937--10954, 1989.

Mellor, G. and Yamada, T., Development of a Turbulence Closure Model for Geophysical Fluid Problems, Rev. Geophy. Space Phys. 20, no. 4, p. 851, 1982.

Mellor, G. and Yamada, T., A hierarchy of turbulence closure models for planetary boundary layers, J. Atm.\ Sci. 31, p. 1791, (1974).

Mesinger, F. and Arakawa, A., Numerical methods used in atmospheric models, Vol. 1, Global Atmospheric Research Program Publication 17, pp. 64, 1976.

Nihoul, J.C.J. and Jamart,B.M., 1987. Three-Dimensional Models of Marine & Estuarine Dynamics. Elsevier. [ A monograph on 3-D ocean models. Advanced material for serious ocean modelers. Collection of technical papers.]

Niiler, P.P., Deepening of the wind-mixed layer, J. Mar. Res. 33, p. 405, (1975).

Nowlin, W.D., A steady, wind-driven, frictional model of two moving layers in a rectangular ocean basin, Deep-Sea Res. 14, p. 89 (1967).

Oberhuber, J.M., Simulation of the Atlantic Circulation with a coupled Sea Ice--Mixed Layer--Isopycnal general circulation model. Part I. Model description, J. Phys.\ Oceanogr. 23, 808--829, 1993.

O'Brien, J.J., The non-linear response of a two-layer, baroclinic ocean to a stationary, axially-symmetric hurricane, Tech. Report 65-34T, Texas A&M Univ., pp. 99, 1965.

O'Brien, J.J., Advanced Physical Oceanographic Numerical Modeling, D. Reidel Publ. Co., 1985. [ A collection of talks at the NATO Advanced Study Institute held in early 80's on the topic of ocean modeling. Excellent survey of the field at that point in time. Contains material on numerical methods for solving different PDEs as well as survey articles on different ocean models, how they were constructed and how they are applied. A must for an ocean modeler.]

Orlonski, I., A simple boundary condition for unbounded hyperbolic flows. J. Comp. Phys., 21, 251--269, 1976.

Pickard, G.L. and Emery, W.J., Descriptive Physical Oceanography, Pergamon Press, 1990. [ A good introduction to the physical properties of global oceans, the water masses and circulation. A must for any beginner to oceanography. Along with its companion book Pond and Pickard, it gives one an excellent introduction as to how our oceans work.]

Pond, S. and Pickard, G. L., Introductory Dynamical Oceanography, Second Edition, Pergamon Press, pp. 329, 1989. [ An easy-to-follow introduction to the dynamics of oceans. Much easier to follow than textbooks such as
Pedlosky's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics. Gives a beginner an excellent knowledge on ocean dynamics to build upon. Along with its companion book Pickard and Emery, it forms a good introduction to oceanography. A must for ocean modelers.

Preller, R. and Hurlburt, H.E., in Hydrodynamics of Semi-enclosed Seas, ed. J.C.J. Nihoul, p. 75--89, Elsevier Publ., 1982.

Roache, P.J., Computational Fluid Dynamics, Hermosa Publishers, Albuquerque, N.M. 1972.

Sathyendranath, S. and Platt, T., The spectral irradiance field at the surface and in the interior of the ocean: A model for applications in oceanography and remote sensing, J. Geophys. Res.\ 93, 9270--9280, 1988.

Semtner, A.J., Jr. and Chervin, R.M., Ocean general circulation from a global eddy-resolving model, J. Geophys. Res. 97, 5493--5550, 1992.

Schwiderski, E.W., On charting global ocean tides, Rev. Geophy. Space Phys. 18, 243--268, 1980.

Simons, T.J., Verification of numerical models of Lake Ontario, Part 1. Circulation in spring and early summer, J. Phys. Ocean. 4, 507--523, 1974.

Smith, W.O., Jr., ed., Polar Oceanography, Part A, Academic Press, 1990. [ Excellent introduction to how polar oceans work. There is a chapter also on sea-ice modeling and its coupling to polar oceans.]

Soetje, K.C. and Brockmann, C., An Operational Numerical Model of the North Sea and the German Bight, in ``North Sea Dynamics'', p. 95, 1983 [ see Sundermann].

Sundermann, J. and Lenz, W., editors, North Sea Dynamics, Springer--Verlag, 1983.

Trenberth, K.E., Climate System Modeling, Cambridge University Press, 1992. [ An excellent introduction to all aspects of climate and climate modeling.
Each chapter written by an expert on the topic. A must for the serious climate modeler.

Warn-Varnas, A., French, J., Piacsek, S., Martin, P., and Harding, J., Real-Time Shear Predictions, NORDA Tech. Note 307, Jan (1986), pp. 57.

Warn-Varnas, A. and Piacsek, S., An Investigation of the Importance of Third-Order Correlations and Choice of Length Scale in Mixed Layer Modeling, Geophys. and Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. 13, p. 225, 1979.

Warren, B.A. and Wunsch, C., Evolution of Physical Oceanography, M.I.T. Press, 1981. [ A collection of surveys on various topics on oceanography. Each chapter written by an expert on the subject. Excellent follow-on to the above introductory books. A required reading for a serious student of
oceanography and ocean modeling.

Washington, W.M. and Parkinson, C.L., An Introduction to Three-Dimensional Climate Modeling, Oxford University Press, 1986. [ A monograph on climate modeling. A good introduction to how climate results and how to model it.]

Wessel, P. and Smith, W.H.F., Free software helps map and display data, EOS Transactions 72, 441--446, 1991.

Wu, J., Wind-Stress Coefficients Over Sea Surface from Breeze to Hurricane, J. Geophys. Res. 87, p. 9704, 1982.