- .tar (binary)
- The output of the Unix utility named tar
(tape archive). Use tar to extract the original files and
directories (Section 3.1.4)
- .z (binary)
- Output of a Unix text compression utility. Files that
end in .Z are usually composites of other types. For example, it
is a common practice to use tar to make an archive and then
compress the archive, resulting in a file of the form foo.tar.Z.
To extract information from this file, first decompress it and then use
tar to extract files from the resulting archive.
- .hqx (ascii)
- A text file created by binhex, a
Macintosh application that creates text files from binary files.
Use binhex to translate the .hqx file into binary.
You will often need to use Stuffit or some other archive program
to extract files from the new binary.
- .dvi (binary)
- Device independent laser printer document
generated by LaTeX, troff, and other text formatters. To print one
of these documents, you need a program that translates the dvi
format to a specific printer language. For example, dvips
translates dvi to Postscript for the Apple LaserWriter
and other Postscript printers.
- .ps (ascii)
- A PostScript file. PostScript is a programming
language, and .ps files can be created by a programmer using
a text editor such as emacs, or by a document formatting
system such as FrameMaker.
- .tex (ascii)
- Source file (unformatted document) for
the LaTeX text formatting system.
- .c (ascii)
- C language source file.
- .f (ascii)
- Fortran language source file.
- .o (binary)
- Compiled output from a C or Fortran compiler
(other languages also use the same naming convention for their
- .GIF (binary)
- Graphic image format recognized by a wide
variety of programs, including xv.
compressing and uncompressing files are described in the next
section. There are several other FTP commands worth knowing;
refer to the manual pages for descriptions of these options. A
transcript of a sample session with FTP can be found in
Section 3.1.5, which also describes a tool for
searching the Internet to