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2.7 Performance Models     continued...

The number of cycles executed can be rewritten as the number of instructions executed times the average number of cycles per instruction:

The middle factor in this expression describes the average number of machine cycles the processor devotes to each instruction. It is the number of cycles per instruction, or CPI. The basic performance model for a single processor computer system is thus

where

The three factors each describe different attributes of the execution of a program. The number of instructions depends on the algorithm, the compiler, and to some extent the instruction set of the machine. Total execution time can be reduced by lowering the instruction count, either through a better algorithm (one that executes an inner loop fewer times, for example), a better compiler (one that generates fewer instructions for the body of the loop), or perhaps by changing the instruction set so it requires fewer instructions to encode the same algorithm. As we saw earlier, however, a more compact encoding as a result of a richer instruction set does not always speed up a program since complex instructions require more cycles. The interaction between instruction complexity and the number of cycles to execute a program is very involved, and it is hard to predict ahead of time whether adding a new instruction will really improve performance.