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3.3.2 Shared Memory     continued...

The multiprocessors produced by Sequent, Inc. are classic examples of machines of this type. Their first machine, the Balance 8000, was intended to compete with the DEC VAX 780, a popular minicomputer at that time. A 2-processor configuration gave slightly less performance than the VAX, but the next larger configuration, with four processors, was faster. The operating system was a modified version of Unix. There was a single global task queue, and each processor could fetch a task from the queue, execute it until it blocks or times out, and return it to the queue. Thus the system implemented a form of job level parallelism. Sequent also provided a library of procedures that allowed users to write parallel programs, and the machine became a popular testbed for parallel languages and algorithms. The current machines, in the Symmetry series, are widely used for on-line transaction processing.

Figure 8: Shared Memory Multiprocessor with Discrete Memory Modules.

Programming a shared memory machine is fairly straightforward. Programming constructs such as semaphores, fork-join, and monitors, which were developed for communication and synchronization of parallel processes in operating systems and other concurrent programming applications, have been adapted for parallel processing. The implementation of the basic synchronization primitives from which these constructs are built is more complex in a parallel system, but this complexity is hidden from users. For example, the bus in the Sequent Symmetry has provisions for implementing a pool of semaphores so that processes are guaranteed to gain exclusive access to shared structures.